Monday, 19 December 2016

Causes of infertility in men

There are several causes for infertility in men, which relates to some underlying medical condition or some other factor such as poor semen quality. Almost 9 % of world’s male population suffers from some kind of infertility. If you are having unprotected intercourse with your female partner for around a year and still unable to make her pregnant then you or your partner could be suffering from some sort of infertility complications that needs medical attention. Below are the main causes of infertility in men for you to read.

Sperm Abnormalities

There are several sperm abnormalities, which can cause infertility in men. The factors that cause sperm abnormalities are disease, congenital birth defects, lifestyle habits and chemical exposure. Several sperm abnormalities are unknown as well. The main categories of sperm abnormalities are Oligospermia (Low sperm count), Asthenospermia (Poor sperm motility) and Teratospermia (Abnormal sperm morphology). Basically the sperm abnormalities are categorized as per sperm movement, sperm count and sperm shape.

Retrograde ejaculation
Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the sperms are forced back into the bladder instead of coming out. This happens when the bladder muscles do not function properly. In retrograde ejaculation the quality of sperms is not up to the mark. There are many reasons of retrograde ejaculation such as surgery of bladder or prostate, diseases such as multiple sclerosis or diabetes, spinal cord surgery or injury, certain medications such as tranquilizers or alpha blockers and aging.

Structural abnormalities

There could be several structural abnormalities that can affect fertility in men. Any abnormality that block or damage the testes or tubes can result in infertility. The various types of structural abnormalities are Cryptorchidism and Hypospadias. Cryptorchidism is the condition in which testicles do not descend from the abdomen to the scrotum. This results in harm to sperm production. Hypospadias is the condition in which urinary opening is on the base of the penis. Although it can be corrected surgically but it’s one of the factors, which results in infertility in men. Another form of structural abnormality is blockage in the tube that moves sperm. Some men lack the tube that transports sperm from the testicles to the penis resulting in infertility.

Monday, 12 December 2016

Cancer drug may cause women to grow new eggs, study suggests

Women treated with a common chemotherapy drug combination have more young eggs in their ovaries afterwards, research has found. A small study indicates that a therapy commonly used to target Hodgkin's lymphoma appears to increase the number of non-growing eggs in women's ovaries.
Researchers say it is too soon to link the outcome to fertility, but believe more research is needed to better understand the findings and their implications.

Scientists from the University of Edinburgh analysed samples of ovary tissue donated by 14 women who had undergone chemotherapy, and from 12 healthy women. They found that the ovaries from eight of the cancer patients, who had been treated with a drug combination known as ABVD, had a much greater incidence of immature, or non-growing, eggs compared with tissue from women who had received a different chemotherapy, or from healthy women of a similar age.

The ovary tissue was seen to be in healthy condition, appearing similar to tissue from young women's ovaries. If further research can reveal the mechanism by which treatment with ABVD results in increased production of eggs, this would aid understanding of how women might be able to produce more eggs during their lifetime, which was until recently thought to be impossible.

Researchers had set out to better understand why treatment with ABVD is one of the few cancer drug combinations that does not impact on women's fertility. Future studies will examine the separate impact of each of the four drugs that combine to make ABVD -- known as adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine -- to better understand the biological mechanisms involved.

The study, published in Human Reproduction, was supported by the Medical Research Council. Lead researcher Professor Evelyn Telfer of the University of Edinburgh's School of Biological Sciences, said: "This study involves only a few patients, but its findings were consistent and its outcome may be significant and far-reaching. We need to know more about how this drug combination acts on the ovaries, and the implications of this."

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Saturday, 10 December 2016

Poor Responder Lady With Poor Ovarian Reserve Its Reasons

Poor ovarian reserve (POR) in women is one of the major factors that plays a very vital role for the success and treatment of infertility. This is an indication of the quality and quantity of a woman's age and of the oocytes. The relation of the age of the patient's which can be due to diversity of the etiological factors. For the success rate, the evaluations of the therapeutic strategies and ovarian reserves play a vital role.
How IVF can make a difference
Those who are diagnosed with POR can go ahead and use the IVF method if they are trying for a baby, while there may be a risk factor in association to the success of the pregnancy, however with proper guidance, treatment, regular monitoring and precautionary measures, this can be minimized. This can also be helpful so that the need of an egg donor can be avoided. With this condition, a woman can have high chances of pregnancy loss and it does not matter which age group she may belong to.
Indications of POR
One of the major indications of POR is the fact that the menstrual cycles are short due to the ovulation and follicle development. Even the increasing age could be one of the associations as to why the oocyte may decline. As per a work group that is associated with the European Society of Human Reproductions and Embryology else known as ESHRE, out of the three main features at least two of them would be needed in order for an unsuccessful attempt of IVF, the three main reasons would be as follows
1) If it is pertaining to POR, then the reason why the IVF would be unsuccessful would be due to the various risks factor which includes the advancement of the maternal age.
2) If there has been a previous history of POR due to which the IVF was not successful
3) If the patient has ORT which is a test conducted for an ovarian reserve that is abnormal.
If the person is considered to be a poor responder, this means that even after the maxim mum stimulation, the person has had two episodes of an unsuccessful IVF due to POR. This could be due to various reasons such as
1) The person is said to be in the advanced stages in regards to an abnormal ORT.
2) It could be due to the ovarian reserve's reduction
3) In regards to the outcome of the ovarian stimulation cycle, the person may act as a surrogate.
Under the above mentioned situations, then the patient is considered to be an expected poor responder. While there is no definition of what you can term as a universal terminology used for a poor responder, however the various factors and considerations of the failed IVF treatment can surely be the main reason's as to why the procedure was not successful. Although there are two main sub groups wherein woman who are POR can be classified, they would be
1) The stimulated cycles previously resulted in the POR as per the observations made which is else known as a definition that is retro-spective.

2) The reason for the POR is due to the various reasons which can be seen in the tests for ovarian reason like an ovarian surgery, age, etc else known as a definition that is prospective. 

Monday, 5 December 2016

Male Infertility Trends And Causes

For the conception of a healthy baby, there are various factors that influence it, apart from the fact that the woman has to be capable for it, even the male's sperm and ability to help in the conception that plays a vital role. In comparison to the infertility of females, the complications behind male infertility are a lot less. This is a situation where the male is not able to be a father due to various factors such as
1) Sexual dysfunction which can also be that the man is not able to maintain or achieve a proper erection
2) The man faces retarded or premature ejaculation
3) The quality or count of the sperm is not up to the mark
4) Ability to produce a certain amount of semen needed for conception
There are various reasons as to why a man can be infertile; this can be due to the lifestyle he lives or the heredity or genetic factor. Some of the major reasons could be as follows
1) The quantity and quality of the sperm has been reduced since he smokes
2) The inadequate production of the sperm can also be due to prolonged activities and certain kinds of exercises which can increase the temperature of the scrotal
3) Physiological factors including stress can also be the reason for sexual dysfunctional
4) Abuse, Use of substance or alcohol can either lead to inadequate sperm quantity and quality or sexual dysfunction
5) Heredity problems or medical conditions which require regular medication that can cause infertility as a side effect or as a result of the particular treatment or condition that they have.
Reasons as to why a man is infertile: In order to understand what the root cause of the matter is, it would be essential that there would be certain tests that would be conducted. After a certain amount of tests, you will get to know the exact reason as to why the infertility has been caused, the reason as to why a man may be infertile could be due to the following reasons
1) The speed at which the sperm moves through the tube may not be that much since the amount of sperms that are needed is not sufficient
2) There are certain hormonal problems in the man which cause an imbalance.
3) There is an infection due to which the infertility is caused.
4) There could be some kind of trauma like a surgery or an injury to the testicular due to which the infertility is triggered.
5) Inflammatory of the prostrate due to which there is some kind of infection.
6) The person has some kind of Sexual transmitted infection
7) He has sustained some kind of injury to the spinal cord
8) Has been diagnosed with Testicular cancer
9) Sickle cell anemia which causes hypogonadism which is where the testicles do not function as desired.
If this is something that can be treated easily with the help of certain medications and or procedures this problem can be taken care of. However, in case this may not happen, then there are artificial procedures like IVF that can be helpful for the fertilization of the egg.